Thyroid Disorders

Thyroid Disorders

Grave’s Disease (hyperthyroid with goiter)



Hashimoto’s Disease (Autoimmune Thyroiditis)
  • – Pathway/Axis:
    • Hypothalamus/ Pituitary/Thyroid (HPT) Axis
  • – Major cause:
    • genes, gender/sex hormones, pregnancy, too much iodine, some drugs and radiation exposure
  • – Major symptoms:
    • Fatigue, weight gain, pale, puffy face, feeling cold, muscle pain, constipation, dry and thinning hair, heavy menstrual flow or irregular periods, depression, slowed heart rate, problems getting pregnant.
  • Management:

Primary Hypothyroidism

Secondary Hypothyroidism

Thyroid Storm (Thyrotoxicosis Crisis)


de Quervain’s Thyroiditis

  • – Pathway/Axis:
    • hypothalamic/Pituitary/Thyroid (HPT) axis
  • – Major cause:
    • viruses such as mumps, influenza, and other respiratory viruses infect the thyroid gland and cause inflammation which damages the follicular cells of the thyroid.
  • – Major symptoms:
    • Neck pain, fever, fatigue.
    • Damage to the thyroid follicular cells can cause hyperthyroidism which leads to weight loss and anxiety.

Infectious (Suppurative) Thyroiditis

Painful Subacute Thyroiditis

Painless Lymphocytic Thyroiditis

Riedel Thyroiditis

Silent Thyroiditis
  • – Pathway/Axis:
    • Hypothalamic/Pituitary/Thyroid (HPT) Axis:
  • – Major cause:
    • unknown, but related to immune attack against the thyroid, leading to the hyperthyroid phase.
    • Once stores on thyroid hormones are depleted the hypothyroid phase beings.
    • Usually occurs in postpartum women, but can be caused by medicines such as interferon and amiodarone.
  • – Major symptoms:
    • “silent” refers to the absence of thyroid tenderness that occurs in subacute thyroiditis.
    • thyroid enlargement with a self-limited hyperthyroid phase several weeks, followed by a hypothyroid phase during which many women are diagnosed.
    • Eventually, recovery to the euthyroid state occurs but the hypothyroid can occasionally become permanent.
    • Eye signs and pretibial myxedema do not occur

Thyroid Mass


Non-Palpable (Incidental) Thyroid Nodule

Solitary thyroid nodule

Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

Follicular carcinoma

Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

Papillary Carcinoma

Toxic Thyroid Adenoma

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