Surgical Anatomy


2124 Thoracic Abdominal Arteries
OpenStax College / CC BY

Neck Region



LocationArterial SupplyVenous Supply
superior esophagusinferior thyroid artery
middle esophagusintercostalsintercostals drain into azygous
lower esophagusgastric, bronchial, and splenic arteries
proximal esophagussubclavian and brachiocephalic veins
distal esophagusIVC, hepatic portal veins, gastric veins


Abdominal Arteries and Veins
2125 Thoracic Abdominal Arteries Chart
OpenStax College / CC BY
Superficial arteries of the abdomenBranches of femoral artery supply tissue above external oblique.
Deep arteries of the abdomenThe inferior epigastric is supplied by the external iliac.
The superior epigastric is supplied by the internal thoracic
Venous supply of abdomen above the umbilicusInternal mammary vein
Venous supply of abdomen below the umbilicusDrain into the external iliac vein
Arcuate Line
Anterior abdominal Layers

1. Skin
2. Subcutaneous fat
3.Superficial fascia
a. Camper’s fascia -> superficial fatty layer
b. Scarpa’s fascia -> deep membranous layer
4. Deep fascia -> Rectus sheath
5. Rectus abdominis, pyramidalis
6. External oblique muscle
7. Internal oblique muscle
8. Transversus abdominus muscle
9. Transversalis fascia
10. Preperitoneal fat
11. Parietal peritoneum

3 anterior abdominal wall folds

Blood supply stomach schematic
Jiju Kurian Punnoose / CC BY-SA


Arterial SupplyVenous Supply
Hepatic artery (30%) and portal vein (70%). 1.5L/ minRight hepatic vein drains to IVC and middle and left hepatic veins join outside the liver.
Ligamentum venosuma fibrous remnant of the ductus venosus

Lies in the fissure on the inferior surface of the liver, forming the left boundary of the caudate lobe of the liver.
Falciform ligamentsickle-shaped peritoneal fold connecting the liver to the diaphragm and the anterior abdominal wall.
Ligamentum teres hepatiscontains remnant of the left umbilical vein which carries oxygenated blood from the placenta during fetal life.

in the free margin of the falciform ligament and ascends from the umbilicus to the inferior (visceral) surface of the liver.
Falciform ligamentsickle-shaped peritoneal fold connecting the liver to the diaphragm and the anterior abdominal wall.

Small Intestine

Arterial supplyVenous supply
Superior mesenteric arteryportal vein and superior mesenteric vein
Large Intestine

Pelvic area

Pelvic Bones


Levator ani

Perineal Body

Avascular spaces
4 paired spaces4 unpaired spaces
– 2 para-vesical
– 2 para-rectal
– retropubic (space of retzius)
– vesicouterine
– rectovaginal
– pre-sacral
Para-rectal space

Para-vesical space
Inguinal Triangle

Femoral Triangle

Borders of pelvic lymph node dissection

Branches of the internal pudendal artery

Path of pudendal nerve
  • Runs with internal pudendal artery
  • Exit pelvis through greater sciatic foramen
  • Hooks around ischial spine / sacrospinous ligament
  • Enter perineum through lesser sciatic foramen
  • Runs in pudendal canal “Alcocks canal” (made by obturator interns fascia)
  • Branches into
    • 1. Inferior rectal nerve
    • 2. Perineal nerve
    • 3. Dorsal clitoral nerve