FM ITE Pulmonology

Anaphylactic Shock



Asthma Exacerbation

Exercise Induced Asthma

Asthma during pregnancy


  • Bronchiectasis is an illness of the bronchi and bronchioles involving obstructive and infectious processes that injure airways and cause luminal dilation.
  • In addition to daily viscid, often purulent sputum production with occasional hemoptysis, wheezing and dyspnea occur in 75% of patients.

Emphysema and chronic bronchitis

  • forms of COPD, also cause a decreased FEV1/FVC ratio, but the sputum is generally mucoid and luminal dilation of bronchi is not characteristically present.


  • is usually secondary to respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children. 


Acute Bronchitis:


  • Question:
  • Answer:
    • – For symptomatic and FEV1 < 60%,
      • monotherapy, use long acting anticholinergic agents (LAMA or LABA)
    • – Pulm rehab FEV1 <50%
    • – Severe resting hypoxemia(<88%) continuous oxygen
    • – Weak evidence for combo inhaled therapies for FEV1 <60%(LAMA, LABA, and inhaled glucocorticoids)
    • – Roflumilast improved as add on therapy
    • – annual influenza vaccine and pneumococcal vaccines



Malignant Hyperthermia

ICU Acquired Weakness


Propofol related infusion syndrome

Interstitial Lung Disease


Laryngeal Carcinoma


  • Pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila is commonly preceded by nonspecific systemic symptoms that may lead a clinician to consider other diagnoses.
  • Symptoms may include high-grade fever, malaise, myalgias, anorexia, and headache.
  • Gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms are also common and include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and confusion.
  • Focal neurologic signs are less common, but have been reported. L
  • ocalizing respiratory symptoms will typically develop later, most often a dry cough and dyspnea.
  • From this point on the illness resembles a typical pneumonia with fever, productive cough, pleuritic pain, and breathlessness.

Lung Abscess

Pleural Effusion

  • Question:
  • Answer:
    • * small (<10mm) free flowing
      • -antibiotics and serial follow up
    • *small to moderate(>10mm or <1/2 hemithorax) free flowing
      • -antibiotics, thoracentesis and serial follow up
    • *Complicated-loculated, thickened pleura, PH <7.2 or glucose < 60 mg/dl
      • – antibiotics, thoracotomy tube drainage, serial follow up and thorascopic debridement if it doesn’t resolve



Candida Albicans

Pneumocystis jirovecci infection




Post Nasal Drip

Pulmonary Edema

Pulmonary Embolism

Fat Embolism

Pulmonary Function Test

FEV1/FVC ratio in obstructive vs. restrictive lung disease

Pulmonary Hypertension

  • Question:
  • Answer:
    • -Defined by resting mean PA pressure of >25mmHg
    • -Can have unexplained dyspnea, decreased exercise tolerance, syncope/near syncope, chest pain, LE edema
    • -Echo is initial study, PA pressure >40 highly suggestive
    • -Right heart cath to confirm diagnosis and quantify degree of PH
    • -V/Q test of choice for chronic thromboembolic dx

Pulmonary Nodule

Respirator Failure


  • Question:
  • Answer:
    • An induration of 5 or more millimeters is considered positive in
      • -HIV-infected persons
      • -A recent contact of a person with ACTIVE TB disease
      • -Persons with fibrotic changes on chest radiograph consistent with prior TB
      • -Patients with organ transplants
      • -Persons who are immunosuppressed

  • Question:
    • An induration of 10 or more millimeters is considered positive in

  • Answer: 
    • An induration of 10 or more millimeters is considered positive in
      • -Recent immigrants (< 5 years) from high-prevalence countries
      • -Injection drug users
      • -Residents and employees of high-risk congregate settings:
        • PRISONER/ JAIL
        • NURSING HOME

  • Question:
    • An induration of 15 or more millimeters is considered positive in
  • Answer:
    • >An induration of 15 or more millimeters is considered positive in any person, with no known risk factors for TB.



  • Question:
  • Answer:
    • – Most common causes bronchogenic carcinoma and bronchiectasis
    • – CXR is initial study, negative doesn’t exclude CXR
    • – Fiberoptic bronch for patients at high risk of lung CA
    • – Chest CT when bronch can’t be done, or bleeding continues following normal bronch
    • – If bleeding localized, put that lung dependent