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- due to the appearance of a heterogeneous group of circulating antibodies to negatively charged phospholipids, including most commonly a lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies.
- The antibodies are usually detected by a false-positive serologic test for syphilis.
- Clinical features include venous and arterial thrombosis, fetal wastage, thrombocytopenia, and the presence of an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) inhibitor.
- It is an important diagnostic consideration in all patients with unexplained thrombosis or cerebral infarction, particularly in young patients.
- Multiple myeloma can be asymptomatic, but it becomes symptomatic when there is organ damage or other abnormalities, including renal insufficiency, elevated calcium, anemia, and bone disease.
- The majority of patients have bone pain, but hypocalcemia is not common.
- Hypokalemia almost never occurs, and both hepatic failure and insomnia are not usual signs of multiple myeloma.
- Anemia typically occurs either because of renal failure or infiltration of the bone marrow by myeloma cells.
- Polycythemia does not occur.
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