Constipation and Diarrhea



Constipation


  • Drugs that causes Constipation:
    • anticholinergics
    • antihistamines
    • antispasmodics
    • antidepressants
    • antipsychotics
    • cation-containing agents:
      • iron supps
      • aluminum (antacids, sucralfate)
      • CaCO3

    • Neural activating agents:
      • opiates
      • ganglionic blockers
      • vinca alkaloids (chemo)
      • CCBs
      • 5HT3 antagonist (ondansetron)

Bulk laxatives (fibers)


  • Types of Bulk laxatives (fibers)
    • soluble (Psyllium, guar, pectin)
      • psyllium (Metamucil)
      • guar
      • pectin
    • insoluble (cellulose, methylcellulose)
      • cellulose
      • methylcellulose

Laxatives


  • Types:
    • bulk laxatives (fiber)
    • emollient laxatives (stool softeners)
    • osmotic laxatives (saline & hyperosmotic)
    • stimulant laxatives
    • Lubiprostone (amitiza)
    • Mineral Oil
  • Bulk Laxatives:
    • metamucil (psylium)
  • Emollient Laxatives:
    • cholase
    • docusate¬†
  • Major type of Osmotic Laxatives
    • Saline osmotic laxatives
      • Mg hydroxide (Milk of magnesia)
      • Mg citrate
      • sodium bisphosphate enemas (generic, fleet)
    • Hyperosmotic laxatives
      • sorbitol
      • lactulose
      • polyethylene glycol (Miralax)
  • Stimulant Laxatives:
    • bisacodyl (dulcolax)
    • phenoiphthalein (Ex-lax)
    • Senna-herbal

Diarrhea


  • Antidiarrheal Medications:
    • loperamide (Imodium-AD)
    • Diphenoxylate & Atropine (Lomotil)
    • Bismuth Subsalicylate (Pepto Bismol)
    • Kaolin & Pectin (Kaopectate)
    • Cholestyramine (Questran)
    • Colestipol (Colestid)
    • Colesevelam (Welchol)