The Cardiac Disease section provides High Yield information for the USMLE, COMLEX, Medical School, Residency, and as a practicing Physicians. Prepare and Learn Ahead! Educating, Preparing, and Proving high-yield content, quizzes, and medical resources. to students who are interested in the medical field.

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Concentric hypertrophy

Hypertrophic Obstructive

  • Path: Genetrics, mutations of sarcomeres

  • Pt: Murmur is simliar to aortic stenosis, young athletes, dyspnea on excretion, syncope, sudden cardiac death

  • Dx: Echo = asymmetric hypertrophy

  • Tx: Beta blockers/ccb (verapamil, diltiazam), avoid dehydration, no ETOH, ablation, myemectomy, AICD = increase risk of death, transplant

  • F/u: 1st degree relatives screened

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

  • Path: Amyloid, sarcoid, hemachoromatosis, CA, fibrosis

  • Pt: Diastolic CHF
    • Amyloid = neuropathy
    • Sarcoid – pulmonary dz
    • Hemachromatotis = Cirrosis, DM

  • Dx: Echo = Restrictive
    • Amyloid = Fat pad biopsy
    • Sarcoid = Cardiac MRI, end-myocardial biopsy
    • Hemachromatosis = Ferritin –> gene

  • Tx: Dilated CHF treatment = BB/CCB, gentle diuresis, transplant, and treat underlying dx


  • Manifestations:
    • Cardiac → restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia
    • GI → macroglossia, hepatomegaly
    • Renal → nephrotic syndrome
    • Hematologic → easy bruising, splenomegaly
    • Neurologic → neuropathy
    • Musculoskeletal → carpal tunnel syndrome